Constructing a password that works for a given account requires a preimage attack, as well as access to the hash of the original password (typically in the file) which may or may not be trivial.
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The algorithms were first published in 2001 in the draft FIPS PUB 180-2, at which time public review and comments were accepted.
In August 2002, FIPS PUB 180-2 became the new Secure Hash Standard, replacing FIPS PUB 180-1, which was released in April 1995.
Cryptographic hash functions are mathematical operations run on digital data; by comparing the computed "hash" (the output from execution of the algorithm) to a known and expected hash value, a person can determine the data's integrity.
For example, computing the hash of a downloaded file and comparing the result to a previously published hash result can show whether the download has been modified or tampered with.
SHA-512/224 and SHA-512/256 are also truncated versions of SHA-512, but the initial values are generated using the method described in Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) PUB 180-4. The SHA-2 family of algorithms are patented in US patent 6829355. It is thus generally recommended to switch to SHA-3 for 512 bit hashes and to use SHA-512/224 and SHA-512/256 instead of SHA-224 and SHA-256.