(Some incoming traffic was also directed instead to Britain's GCHQ for the time being.) Director Michael Hayden called the outage a "wake-up call" for the need to invest in the agency's infrastructure.
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the NSA created new IT systems to deal with the flood of information from new technologies like the Internet and cellphones.
This led to investigations by Congress and the NSA and Do D Inspectors General. It also included offensive cyber-warfare capabilities, like injecting malware into remote computers.
Congress criticized Turbulence in 2007 for having similar bureaucratic problems as Trailblazer.
The documents also revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. At that point, the unit consisted of Yardley and two civilian clerks.