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This is because schools both reproduce and cause violence.
Not only do they not necessarily protect learners from different forms of violence in the wider society but they actively perpetrate violence themselves (Harber 2004, 2009).
An integrated approach to education and training was key to human resource development as the old academic/applied or 'head and hand' distinctions were seen as having helped to reproduce occupational and class distinctions.
There was a need for a form of education that provided the skills and predispositions for continual learning, moving flexibly between occupations and taking responsibility for personal performance as a contribution towards developing a successful economy (Department of Education, 1995).
This can be economic benefit in the form of human capital theory where education increases the employment skills, productivity and earning power of individuals and hence contributes to economic growth.