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is the earliest known civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world with Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley. The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jemdet Nasr and date back to 3300 BC; early cuneiform script writing emerged in 3000 BC.

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Following the Gutian period, there was a brief Sumerian Renaissance in the 21st century BC, cut short in the 20th century BC by invasions by the Amorites. 1700 BC, when Mesopotamia was united under Babylonian rule.

The Sumerians were eventually absorbed into the Akkadian (Assyro-Babylonian) population.

the 23rd century BC, when a now deciphered syllabary writing system was developed, which has allowed archaeologists to read contemporary records and inscriptions.

Classical Sumer ends with the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 23rd century BC.

6500 BC, by farmers who brought with them the Hadji Muhammed culture, which first pioneered irrigation agriculture.