6), “that we must expect the solution to the great problem of origins.” In 1895, René de Balloy, the French minister in Tehran, acquired from Nāṣer-al-Din Shah the French monopoly for archeological excavations in Persia—the result of ten years of effort and a cost to the treasury of the Third Republic of more than 50,000 francs. 61-136), and perhaps at this time the head of a statue (ibid., p. 448) which, sixty-four years later, joined its body (excavated in 1907) at the Louvre Museum (Spycket, 1968). In 1907-08, virgin soil was reached 28 m under the surface of the Acropolis. He took charge of the excavations in the absence of de Morgan from 1908 to April 1911. In 19, vaulted tombs were found with portraits of heads in polychrome unbaked earth; and during the 1930-31 campaign, a Sasanid coin hoard was discovered (Allotte de la Füye et al., 1934, pp. In the sector of the Donjon, excavations continued between 19, and several sections of an “Achaemenid enclosure” were discovered. 74), but he also pointed out the presence of other structures, housing, and non-funerary objects (ibid., pp. Despite the muddled presentation of the remains, the Donjon provides the earliest testimonies of a population at Susa outside its earliest centers, the Acropolis and the Apadāna; the Royal City was to expand gradually from this nucleus. More modest worksites were opened here from 1926 on (de Mecquenem, 1980, p. During the 1932-33 season, tesserae were excavated from soundings near the center of the hill (Allotte de la Füye et al., 1934, p. He regularly published preliminary reports in the (vols. He therefore opened the great stratigraphic site “VR A” north of the “Royal City,” which was to reveal Islamic, Sasanid, Parthian-Hellenistic, and Achaemenid levels (I-VIII); farther down, he found Neo-Elamite tombs dug out from a Neo- or Meso-Elamite level (IX), two further Meso-Elamite levels (X and XI) and four from the Sukkalmah period (ca.The agreement was renewed five years later, at which time it awarded France an exclusive and perpetual monopoly for carrying out archeological explorations all over Persia, and possession of all objects discovered in Susiana; a compensation in value by weight of all precious metals was to be returned to Persia (see DÉLÉGATION ARCHÉOLOGIQUES FRANÇAISES). Toward the western center of the Acropolis, the religious complex of the Inshushinak and Nin-hursag temples was cleared. The position of these sixteen deposits is indicated on plans that are hardly intelligible (Scheil, 1902, pp. The two buildings underwent numerous modifications, attested by several pavements and bricks inscribed with rulers’ names (whose reading remains inexact), as well as by the discovery, in the northern sector of Nin-hursag’s section, of the bronze plate with the ritual scene called (Soutzo et al., 1911, pp. This was the so-called “statue of the goddess Narundi,” a name based on an interpretation by Walther Hinz (1962, p. In a trench dug southeast of the hill, there appeared a “necropolis,” of which the claimed extent, shape, and number of tombs were to change considerably from one publication to the next (see Steve et al, 2002, col. At the Acropolis, excavations continued in depth, and the sector of the Susa I “necropolis” was enlarged. Many proto-Elamite (see ELAM iii) tablets were found at 10-15 m depth. These were extended after World War I, especially those along the southwestern edge of the hill; the “first and second soundings” and the excavations of the “Donjon” mound (Allotte de la Füye et al., 1934, pp. The end of 1932 marked the discovery of a Sasanid palace, of which the foundations appeared to go back to the Achaemenid period (Allotte de la Füye et al., 1934, pp. 1880-1450 BCE, according to the low chronology proposed by Gasche et al., 1998).
Meanwhile, the Délégation en Perse was created (1897), and Jacques de Morgan, who at the time was head of the Department of Antiquities of Egypt, was asked to assume control of this new institution. The most significant archeological discovery was the “Code of Hammurabi,” found in three pieces in January 1902 (de Morgan et al, 1905, pp. V), not far from the Obelisk of Manishtushu and the Stele of Naram-Sin (cf. 72); it was published a few months later by Scheil (1902, pp. The two sanctuaries both revealed eight concealed recesses, each of which contained a foundation figurine and a tablet bearing the same inscription by Shulgi, the second king of IIIrd Dynasty Ur (r. 68, 70); only one figurine has been published (by Roland de Mecquenem in de Morgan et al, 1905, p. XI), and the text of the Inshushinak temple tablets (Scheil, 1905, pp. 143-51), which the inscription attributes to Shilhak-Inshushinak (r. 16), rather than on the inscriptions engraved on it (cf. 404); these tombs provided “two or three thousand (vases) covered with paintings” (Pottier et al., 1912, p. In the inexhaustible sector of the Nin-hursag temple, fragments of a statue of Puzur-Inshushinak with double inscription in Linear Elamite (see ELAM iv) and Akkadian were discovered in 1909 (Scheil and Legrain, 1913, pp. At the “Apadāna,” work resumed south of the hypostyle room (de Mecquenem, 1910, pp. In the palace area proper, the excavators only found a pavement 20 m x 20 m (de Mecquenem, 1947, p. In 1947, de Mecquenem presented a summary of the works carried out on the Apadāna (ibid., pp. The most ancient of these (level XV) appears to go back to the Siwe-palar-huppak period, contemporary with Hammurabi of Babylon (r. 123-24) were discovered a group of literary tablets (publ.
He arrived in Susa on 16 December 1897 and started excavations two days later; work continued under his direction until his resignation in 1912. 7), that is, practically all the vases among the beautiful ceramics of Susa I. 45-47) and east of the palace, where bricks of the “Archers’ Frieze” had been re-used in the building of Islamic-period conduits. It yielded pottery of the Susa I and “II style” (= Proto-dynastic/Susa IV), a dish with inlays in white paste, proto-Elamite tablets, dishes in aragonite and in alabaster, and bullae with seal impressions. 1-119) and a reconstruction of the palace (ibid., plan II on pp. 1696-54 BCE); these last remains were excavated during the 20th campaign (1965-66). René Labat and Dietz Edzard, 1974); at the same level, there surfaced a legal text with the seal of Kidinu (ca.
The earliest collaborators were the Assyriologist Father Vincent Scheil, O. In the same sector, but at a more recent level, there appeared two “cached vases” (Soutzo et al., 1911, pl. In the central courtyard, enameled bricks discovered in 1911 led to restoration the motif of “two facing sphinxes.” Information about work in the “Royal City” is found in Mecquenem’s “Mission Report” for 1912 (National Archives, Paris, AN F17246); discoveries included about twelve tablets, and, on the southeast edge of the hill, an 40-meter enclosed precinct was uncovered. A week after de Morgan’s resignation, the Délégation en Perse was dissolved; Roland de Mecquenem and Father Vincent Scheil then worked jointly within the framework of the Mission Archéologique de Susiane. Central sounding Excavations were resumed in 1909-10 in the sector of the Nin-hursag temple. 1450 BCE), the first sovereign of a lineage which followed the long dynasty of the Sukkalmah.
P., the Egyptologist Gustave Jéquier, Joseph-Etienne Gautier, and Georges Lampre, who had been resident in Persia since 1887 (for subsequent members of the Délégation, see Spycket, 1997). He was a geologist, prehistorian, and naturalist, as well as a talented cartographer, fine draughtsman, ethnologist, archeologist, and even numismatist, a scholars whose sure understanding of things, vast knowledge, and great energy were generally admired. 66; for the inscription of the foundation text, see Scheil, 1904, pp. Recovered from more ancient levels were fragments of the “Stele of Untash-Napirisha” (de Morgan et al., 1900, pl. De Morgan resigned on 12 October 1912, stating reasons of health, but in fact making a dignified response to charges of mismanagement of funds, etc., fomented by L. Watelin (dismissed in 1903) and Lampre (dismissed in 1907), who compiled “their complaints and accusations in a pamphlet that they distributed widely in the scholarly world and to Parliament” (de Mecquenem, 1980, p. The working methods remained unchanged, and excavations continued at the Acropolis, but principal operations shifted to the Apadāna and the Royal City. This involved enlargement of an old trench and exploration of “five levels of excavations,” at varying depths, in order to reach virgin soil (ibid., pp. There was only a mass of “piled-up earth” with decorative nails in it (de Mecquenem et al., 1943, p. To complete the stratigraphy from the beginning of the 2nd millennium, between Siwe-palar-huppah, roughly, and the beginning of the Simashki/Ur III dynasties, Ghirshman chose a stage within de Mecquenem’s “2nd sounding,” southwest of the “Royal City” (VR B).
In a trench opened 60 m south of the southernmost columns of the hypostyle, there appeared elements of the “frieze of lions” (see LOUVRE MUSEUM). 87), the existence of a city gate was assumed, which Jean Perrot was to uncover about 90 years later. The date is generally presumed to be the late 3rd or early 2nd century BCE. During an exploratory mission in Persia (1889-91), Jacques de Morgan visited Susa in 1891. The two temples of the Acropolis were situated, one to the west, the other to the east of the High Terrace of the Agade Period (ca. 46, 59-62, and plan 1 at end), and what was left of them was razed to the ground by the de Morgan excavations. At the Apadāna a trench was dug southeast of the hypostyle room, and the first soundings were carried out on the hills of the Artisans’ City.